What Is An Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine and How Do They Work?

The gas turbine engine is a powerful apparatus that serves a diverse set of aircraft types, and they are well capable of drawing in large amounts of air at high altitudes for compression, fuel mixing, and combustion. Through the process of burning fuel-and-air mixtures, the gas turbine engine produces the propulsive forces necessary for maintaining heavier-than-air flight. While there are numerous gas turbine engine types that may slightly vary in their functionality or included parts, all follow a similar method of operation through the use of common assemblies.

Whether an engine is a turbojet, turboshaft, or another gas turbine engine type, the common aircraft turbine engine parts that are found across all variations include the air inlet, compressor section, combustion section, turbine assembly, exhaust section, and accessory section. The air intake turbine engine assembly is implemented for the means of drawing in atmospheric oxygen, and the intake air is directed into the compressor section of the engine so that it may have its pressure and density increased. The compressor section of a gas turbine engine may vary by type, though most implement rotating blades in order to increase the air’s kinetic energy and pressure. Generally, axial and centrifugal compressors are the most common types found in such engines, and they differ from one another in regard to their included parts and pressure increasing factor.

After reaching a sufficient pressure for optimal ignition, the compressed air is then directed towards the combustion section of the turbine engine. As the air passes through this section, it is mixed with aircraft fuel with the use of nozzles or other components in order to achieve a properly balanced fuel-and-air mixture. When this mixture is ignited within the combustion section of the engine, extremely hot exhaust gases will be produced as a result. As the exhaust gases expand within the combustion chamber, they begin to push their way into the turbine assembly.

Within the turbine assembly, turbine inlet guide vanes and an inlet nozzle are situated in such a way that the exhaust gases are directed at the turbine blades with high velocity. As gases collide with the blades, their pressure and energy is converted into mechanical energy as the turbine blades begin to rotate. Spinning the turbine blade assembly is crucial for engine operations as its revolutions provide the force and power needed to drive the compressor assembly and power other various aircraft turbine engine parts. Generally, once the turbine blades are spinning at full speed and are driving the compressor, the engine has reached self-sustaining operations.

Once exhaust gases have been spent, they need to be ejected from the aircraft in a way that does not hinder performance or speed. In some turbine engine assemblies, the exhaust section may be designed to impart exhaust gases at a high exit velocity, creating additional thrust for increased performance. As the exit gas stream is extremely hot, the exhaust system is typically fitted with insulation blankets and shrouds to prevent heat from radiating outwards and damaging surrounding airframe components.

Beyond the aforementioned sections of the aircraft turbine engine, some assemblies may feature various other parts that enable the high performance that such engines are known for. When you are in need of top quality gas turbine engine parts that you can steadily rely on for your operations, look no further than Aviation Store Online. Aviation Store Online is a premier supplier of aviation, NSN, and electronic parts, and we can provide customers competitive pricing and rapid lead-times on fuel pump main turbine engine parts, cooler oil turbine engine components, aircraft gas turbine engine accessory support parts, and much more. As you explore our offered listings, we invite you to fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form for the items that you are most interested in. Upon the receival of your request, our team of industry experts will rapidly craft you a quote for your comparisons in just 15 minutes or less, 24/7x365.


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