What are the Six Basic Instruments in Aircraft?

Within a standard aircraft cockpit, there is a plethora of flight pertinent information that is readily available for the pilot. An aircraft cockpit features various types of aircraft instruments to provide accurate flight situations and information to conduct safe and proper flight. Each aircraft instrument provides various important details, and these instruments include the airspeed indicator, attitude indicator, altimeter, vertical speed indicator, heading indicator, and turn coordinator. In this blog, we will provide a short overview on each of the basic six types of aircraft instruments, and how they benefit the pilot during flight.

Six Basic Types of Aircraft Instrument :- 

  1. Airspeed Indicator (Pitot Static):

    With the airspeed indicator, flow of air over the aircraft is measured to determine the speed. This speed is measured in knots (sometimes Mach), and is connected through a pitot static system. To determine knots of the aircraft, the system relies on a pitot tube and a static port. By calculating the difference between the dynamic pressure of the pitot tube and pressure in the static port, a reading can be given and airspeed determined. This airspeed can help a pilot maintain optimal operating range and aid with flight planning.

    Know about : How Does An Airspeed Indicator Work?
  2. Attitude Indicator (Gyro):

    Attitude indicators are an important gyroscopic instrument, allowing pilots to determine their current angle of attack and amount of banking. An indicator typically displays a blue half to represent the sky, and a brown half to represent the ground. A miniature aircraft will also be present to allow depiction of the aircraft in relation to the horizon. The gyroscopic component is important as it is what allows for the horizon to stay put while the aircraft moves to represent changes in bank, angle of attack, etc.
  3. Altimeter (Pitot Static):

    Altimeters are another aircraft instrument that relies on the pitot static system to provide important information. With an altimeter, the altitude of the aircraft can be determined. It is critical to note that the distance is in relation to sea level, so a pilot must be constantly aware of changing elevation of the ground during flight for safe operation. Barometric pressure is used to calculate altitude, then a clock-like display with multiple hands conveys the altitude that the aircraft is currently flying at.

    Know about : Navigating the Air - How Pilots Find their Way in the Air?
  4. Vertical Speed Indicator (Pitot Static):

    Vertical speed indicators are monitored in tandem with altimeters as the vertical speed indicator allows for a pilot to be aware of the rate of climb. With the reading of the altitude change, a rate of change can be calculated. This can also help the pilot be aware of if they are flying level or are angled. As with other pitot static systems, this rate of change is determined through the measurement of changes in pressure in the pitot tube and static ports.
  5. Heading Indicator (Gyro):

    The heading indicator of the aircraft is a fairly simple tool, determining the direction of the aircraft, much like a compass. The indicator displays heading degrees from 0 to 359 degrees, and a miniature aircraft displays helps the pilot understand which direction the aircraft is heading in relation to the directional compass. Pilots should always be cognisant of possible errors in instruments during times of turbulence and other disturbances, just as they should with all other instruments.
  6. Turn Coordinator (Gyro):

    The most simple of the various types of aircraft instruments is the turn coordinator. With this tool, the pilot can see whether or not the aircraft is rolling, as well as the rate of roll. The display features a miniature aircraft and tick marks on the left and right to help the pilot time turns by degree.Having an understanding of the various aircraft instruments is extremely important to any pilot, new or experienced. They allow for safe and efficient flight, and provide much needed information for flight planning.

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November 4, 2019

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